Biometrics Technology :

Biometrics is the technology or discipline that recognizes a persons biological and behavioural characteristics, thereby verifying the identity of the corresponding individual. A more restricted definition of biometrics refers to the science designed to enable a machine to analyzer a person's biological and behavioural traits for the verification of his or her identity. From the users' point of view, Biometrics is gaining wide popularity for two main reasons.

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Increased Security Management

Biometrics offers superior security than PIN or ID card identifications. In today's world, computers processes so much important data information exchange in the cyberspace, and expands e-commerce fields to online banking. Against this backdrop, the demand for valid identity authentication is soaring along with the growth of the related businesses. Biometric methods do not involve danger of information exposure and unauthorized persons cannot attempt to steal or make a guess at the private information.

Increased Convenience

Convenience is one of the greatest advantages of biometrics compared to existing methods of personal authentication such as keys, identification numbers (ID) and passwords. In other words, everyone can be uniquely identified without the need for an ID, a magnetic card, a smart card, a key or a personal identification number (PIN).

A user can verify each individual by using only physical traits such as fingerprints, iris, palm, or voice. Also, using biometrics, a machine can electronically recognize a user, thereby enabling its system to allow for the automatic response to that user's request. In short, biometrics is able to deliver both safety and convenience in the identity verification field, thereby reaping huge economic benefits.

Biometrics can be classified according to the type of biometric data used, e.g., face, iris, voice, signature, or hand geometry identification. However, all these methods take the same authentication process.

Mifare Contactless Smart Card Technology

MIFARE technology is a 13.56 MHz contactless technology that is owned by Philips Semiconductor, now known as NXP. They do not make cards or readers, but they make and sell the card chips and reader chips in the open market. Card and reader manufacturers use this technology to create unique products for use by end-users.

MIFARE is often considered to be a "smart card" technology. This is based on the ability to read and write to the card. In reality, MIFARE is simply a memory card (as opposed to a processor card).

The MIFARE contactless smart card and MIFARE card reader/writer were originally developed to handle payment transactions for public transportation systems. With a short read-range, MIFARE was uniquely suited to perform increment/decrement functions. Although contact smart cards could also do the job, contactless readers are faster and easier to use, and there is virtually no maintenance on the readers, or wear and tear on the cards.

The typical read-range on a MIFARE contact less smart card reader is 1.0" to 3.9" (i.e., 2.5 to 10 cm). Up to 15 different products can be stored on a MIFARE card, and these productss will be separate and secure from one another by using unique keys (passwords) for each sector. The only requirement is that the various products providers must cooperate in the programming of the MIFARE products Directory (MAD), and that the keys to this directory must be available to all products providers.

MIFARE is a 13.56 MHz contactless technology that is described under ISO 14443 Type A.

RFID Technology

RFID stands for Radio Frequency IDentification.

RFID is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it.

An RFID system consists of a tag, which is made up of a microchip with an antenna, and an interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends out electromagnetic waves. The tag antenna is tuned to receive these waves. A passive RFID tag draws power from field created by the reader and uses it to power the microchip's circuits. The chip then modulates the waves that the tag sends back to the reader and the reader converts the new waves into digital data.

The big difference between bar codes and RFID is that bar codes are line-of-sight technology. That is, a scanner has to "see" the bar code to read it, which means people usually have to orient the bar code towards a scanner for it to be read. Radio frequency identification, by contrast, doesn't require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader. Bar codes have other shortcomings as well. If a label is ripped, soiled or falls off, there is no way to scan the item. And standard bar codes identify only the manufacturer and product, not the unique item. The bar code on one milk carton is the same as every other, making it impossible to identify which one might pass its expiration date first.

Microchips in RFID tags can be read-write or read-only. With read-write chips, you can add information to the tag or write over existing information when the tag is within range of a reader, or interrogator. Read-write tags usually have a serial number that can't be written over. Additional blocks of data can be used to store additional information about the items the tag is attached to. Some read-only microchips have information stored on them during the manufacturing process. The information on such chips can never been changed. Other tags can have a serial number written to it once and then that information can't be overwritten later.

Bar Code Technology :

Standard bar codes are like a social security number, acting as a reference number that a computer uses to look up associated descriptive data and other pertinent information.

The process requires conversion of a bar code that can be printed on or affixed to an item, and subsequently read by a light source and fed into a computer.

When a bar code scanner is passed over the bar code:The light source from the scanner is absorbed by the dark bars and reflected by the light spaces. A photocell detector in the scanner receives the reflected light and converts the light in to an electrical signal.As the barcode is scanned, a low electrical signal for the spaces (reflected light) and a high electrical signal for the bars are created. The duration of the electrical signal determines wide vs. narrow elements. This signal can be "decoded" by the bar code reader's decoder into the character that the bar code represents. The decoded data is then passed to the computer in a traditional data format.

Bar Code scanners are faster than the human eye and far more accurate. Based on tests, bar code information has an accuracy rate of 1 error per 10,000,000 characters. Compare that to keyboard error rates of 1 error per 100 characters. This form of "automatic identification" can help prevent misidentification errors, which can help save lives and money.

GSM Technology :

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications

GSM is an open, non-proprietary system that is constantly evolving. One of its great strengths is the international roaming capability. This gives consumers seamless and same standardized same number connectivity in almost all countries. GSM satellite roaming has extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available.

GSM differs from first generation wireless systems in that it uses digital technology and time division multiple access transmission methods. Voice is digitally encoded via a unique encoder, which emulates the characteristics of human speech. This method of transmission permits a very efficient data rate/information content ratio.

From the outset, GSM has been a system designed with stringent levels of inbuilt security. With constantly enhanced transmission protocols and algorithms added to the flexible and future proof platform, GSM remains the most secure public wireless standard in the world.

The GSM Association, based in Dublin, Ireland and London, UK, represents the interests of more than 690 GSM satellite and 3G operators, key manufacturers and suppliers to the GSM industry as well as regulatory and administrative bodies from more than 190 countries and regions around the world. Most of the first third generation licensees are also members. The GSM Association is responsible for the continued maintenance of open standards and interoperability. The global cooperation between operators is most powerfully illuminated by the success of international roaming. One of the Association's major priorities is the development and promotion of the GSM standard worldwide.